Regular water changes are the most important part of maintaining an aquarium. Because it’s such a simple task, the ‘dos & don’ts’ are often overlooked.
It’s routine, it’s mundane, it doesn’t always fit into our schedule. Yes, we are talking about the aquarium water change.
What do you need for the task? For all practical purposes, a simple bucket or pot will do the trick. Scoop out some water, pour fresh water back in …after using a conditioner of course… Bingo, you did a water change.
Ok, so maybe that’s not our best option for changing water. Let’s take a look at some of the variables, so we can get the most bang for time spent.
Getting the Most Out of the Aquarium Water Change
Maximizing the benefits of the water change
Organic waste accumulates and dissolves in the aquarium, as a result nitrate is constantly created. Because nitrate is the final nutrient in the nitrogen cycle, our best option is to physically remove it through regular water changes.
Because the aquarium is a closed-loop ecosystem, accumulating waste and nutrients must be regularly removed through water changes.
To maximize the benefits of your water changes, always use a siphon to ‘vacuum’ the gravel while extracting water. Removing waste settled at the bottom of the tank is extremely beneficial for maintaining a healthy and balanced aquarium.
Regularly scheduled aquarium water changes include these benefits:
- Removes accumulating nitrates
- Waste particles settling at the bottom of the aquarium can easily be removed with a siphon
- Removes toxins and chemical pollutants
- Improves water clarity and removes odors
- Adding fresh water back into the aquarium increases available oxygen
- Replenishes depleted minerals and trace elements
Recommended Aquarium Water Change Schedule
The benefits of regular water changes
Our recommendation for general aquarium maintenance purposes
- Weekly water changes of about 10% of the tank volume.
- Optionally, 15 – 20% every other week, works in most aquariums as well.
Using these weekly and bi-weekly guidelines, the schedule can be tweaked to suit each unique aquarium setup. In some cases less frequent water changes will work, while heavily stocked aquariums likely require more frequent changes.
Some trial and error is required to determine the most effective water change schedule for your own aquarium.
Additional maintenance tasks at the time of water changes
Inspect of the filter and filter media. If the filter is dirty, usually a quick rinse with fresh water will do.
Filter inserts may also benefit from a quick rinse. Generally they do not need changed at the same frequency as water changes are completed.
We strongly recommend avoiding overstocking the fish tank, because it results in increased waste in limited space. Consequently, maintaining a healthy aquarium becomes an uphill battle.
What to avoid when changing water
Occasionally we experience deteriorating water conditions, an algae outbreak, or green aquarium water. It is important to take measured action, when attempting to correct these problems.
A common overreaction is to go BIG. It is tempting, and even seems sensible, to change nearly all the aquarium water. Furthermore, thoroughly cleaning the filter, and replacing all filter media is not always helpful. Only on rare occasions is such drastic action recommended.
The result of these actions, individually or combined, can lead to a severe decline in nitrifying bacteria. When you decrease the population of this beneficial bacteria, the result is a disruption of organic waste breakdown in the aquarium.
Ultimately this can lead to worsening tank conditions, including a rise of water toxicity from increases in ammonia and nitrite, more severe algae outbreaks and dense green aquarium water.
Good intentions can lead to excessive action, resulting in an unbalanced and toxic aquatic environment.
General Aquarium Water Change Guidelines
- Water temperature should be +/- 5 degrees F of the tank water
- Use a water conditioner. Fresh water added to the aquarium should be free of chlorine, chloramine, and heavy metals (lead, copper)
- Never use hot water to adjust the temperature inside the aquarium. It can severely shock fish. Furthermore, older hot water tanks may contain toxic levels of zinc
- If using tap water, let the water run for a minute to clear the lines of possible dirt particles
- Know what you’re adding to your fish tank! Check tap water check for nitrates. More importantly make sure the pH and kH match that of your aquarium